The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan

 

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 Apr 24, 1885 - The Battle of Fish Creek during the North West Rebellion was fought. General Middleton's column was fought to a standstill by Metis forces under Gabriel Dumont.

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  • Treaty 6 91% Treaty 6 - Treaty 6, between the Queen and bands of Cree and Stoney First Nations, was negotiated and signed at Fort Carlton and Duck Lake in August, and at Fort Pitt in September, 1876. During 1877 and 1878, several bands that had not been present at the initial negotiations signed adhesions to Treaty 6. Soon after the treaty was first signed, some bands chose reserves, moved to them, and began receiving treaty agricultural supplies. Treaty 6, as well as the other numbered treaties, ...
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  • Red Pheasant First Nation 89% Red Pheasant First Nation - Prior to signing treaty Chief Wuttunee (Porcupine) and his Cree band hunted and fished along the Battle River, and as settlers moved into the Battleford region where they conducted trade. Though Wuttunee was chief at the signing of Treaty 6 on September 9, 1876, he was not in favour of the treaty and appointed his brother Red Pheasant to sign for him. The main economic base is agriculture, but the reserve hosts a band-owned grocery store, and in 1997 the band ...
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  • Treaty 8 86% Treaty 8 - Treaty 8, signed in 1899, covers portions of the boreal forest area in northern Saskatchewan. Unlike Treaties 1 through 7, which were signed between 1871 and 1877, it was not agricultural development or transcontinental transportation, but mining that spurred the treaty signing process in the north. The other provisions of the Treaty were similar to those of the 1870s treaties and included annuities, ammunition and twine, education, rights to hunt, fish and trap, clothing, and ...
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  • Big Bear (mistahi-maskwa) (ca. 1825– 88) 85% Born near Jackfish Lake around 1825 to an Ojibwa chief named Black Powder (Mukitoo), Big Bear spoke Cree as a first language, but also Ojibwa. He led his followers to the Cypress Hills , where they faced starvation from lack of game and the withholding of food rations, as the federal government attempted to coerce them to sign treaty and move onto reserves. The arrival of troops from eastern Canada squelched the Métis resistance, and First Nations people including Wandering Spirit, ...
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  • Education in Saskatchewan Timeline 85% 1843 The Education Act repeals the Common School Act of 1841 and re-establishes Canada East and West as responsible for education. 1920 Saskatchewan passes the Vocational Education Act in 1920, enabling school boards to establish schools aimed at training students in industrial programs. 2000 The Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies Act is passed to establish the Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies, which provides adult basic education, post-secondary training programs, ...
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  • Aboriginal Peoples of Saskatchewan 85% Non-Treaty Indians are members of First Nations, primarily the Dakota, who have reserves and are recognized as having Indian Status under the Indian Act, but were not signatories to treaties. Politics and Governance The announcement of the Trudeau government’s Indian Policy of 1969, which advocated termination of Indian treaties, rights and reserves, galvanized the First Nations of Canada to organize nationally under the National Indian Brotherhood (NIB). In 1982, the Federation of ...
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  • Sweet Grass First Nation 83% Sweet Grass First Nation - Chief Sweet Grass (Weekaskookwasayin) signed Treaty 6 on September 9, 1876, with the Fort Pitt Indians, but was killed about six months later. In 1882, Young Sweet Grass and seventeen followers joined Wah-wee-kah-oo-tah-mah-hote (Strikes him on the back), who had signed Treaty 6 at Fort Carlton on August 28, 1876. Wah-wee-kah-oo-tah-mah-hote was chief from 1876 to 1883; but he was deposed in 1884, and Young Sweet Grass became chief. ...
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  • Onion Lake First Nation 83% Onion Lake First Nation - Chief Seekaskootch's band signed Treaty 6 at Fort Pitt on September 9, 1876, while other River Cree signed an adhesion to Treaty 6 in 1878 as the Makaoo Band. The federal government refused to recognize a chief for these two bands until 1914, when they were told to amalgamate as the Onion Lake Band. The Onion Lake Reserve straddles the Saskatchewan-Alberta border, making it Canada's only border Cree Nation. ...
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  • Kahkewistahaw Band 83% Kahkewistahaw Band - Chief Kahkewistahaw, a prominent leader, signed Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874. On March 2, 1989, the Kahkewistahaw First Nation submitted a claim under the Specific Claims Policy, and on June 25, 2003, they signed a land claim agreement with the federal government addressing the injustice and providing funds to invest in economic development and job creation. Currently run programs include social development, justice, a Head Start Program, Indian Child and Family ...
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  • Morris Rodweeder Strike 83% While the workers-members of the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU)-finally prevailed, the struggle to organize and sign a collective agreement between the company and more than 300 employees at Morris Rodweeder was an epic one. Morris management countered by laying off fifty workers and firing two key union supporters. Within forty-eight hours, a majority of workers signed new cards, but Morris management refused to recognize or bargain with the union. ...
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  • Piapot (1816–1908) 81% Piapot (1816-1908) - Piapot (Payepot) was born to a Cree mother and an Assiniboine father in 1816; shortly after his birth his parents died of smallpox. In 1875 he met with Treaty Commissioner William Christie, and after seeking guarantees that he would receive farm instructors, mills, more tools, and medical assistance, he signed an adhesion to Treaty 4. However many of the terms Piapot believed he had negotiated would not appear until Treaty 6 in 1876. As a result, Piapot was eventually ...
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  • Women of Saskatchewan - Historical Overview 81% Single women had more rights, and property-owning single women (including widows) acquired the right to vote locally before married women did. In 1911 the Homemakers’ Clubs of Saskatchewan were founded, patterned after the Women’s Institutes that first emerged in mid-1890s Ontario ( see Homemakers’ Clubs and the Women’s Institutes); and in 1914 came a uniquely Saskatchewan contribution, the more radically oriented Women Grain Growers, which was open only to bona fide ...
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  • Mosquito, Grizzly Bear’s Head, Lean Man First Nations 81% Mosquito, Grizzly Bear's Head, Lean Man First Nations - Until the Treaty Land Entitlement Act was enforced, the Mosquito Reserve included three bands: Mosquito Band #109, Lean Man Band #111, and Grizzly Bear's Head Band #110. The Mosquito Band is a Nakota/Cree band located in the Eagle Hills south of North Battleford. The band's population continuously declined, and by 1931 only one member remained; this person joined the Mosquito Grizzly Bear's Head band. ...
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  • McKinnon, Eleanor (1912–2004) 81% McKinnon, Eleanor (1912-2004) - Eleanor McKinnon was born in Weyburn on October 22, 1912, the daughter of Norman McKinnon, the owner of "Saskatchewan's foremost store." Eleanor McKinnon attended Brandon College, then for nine years was secretary to Dr. Campbell at the Weyburn Mental Hospital. Every letter was answered: McKinnon composed most of the responses, but Douglas read every word and signed each reply, often writing in additional comments. ...
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  • Labour - Three Centuries of Working for Wages in Saskatchewan 81% It was a small workforce: in 1820, at the peak of fur trade activity, there were fewer than 2,000 wage workers employed by the fur companies. Nevertheless, fur trade workers did launch a number of strikes in support of improved wages and working conditions. The building trades workers, like the railway running trades before, brought their union organizations with them to the west. ...
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  • Farm Movement (1901–49) 81% The GGG and the Alberta Co-operative Elevator Company did so in 1917 to form the United Grain Growers Ltd.; however, the Saskatchewan Co-operative Elevator Company declined to participate. Discussions on forming a producer co-operative marketing pool for wheat began to emerge, but sentiment among many SGGA members for a 100% compulsory wheat pool remained strong. On August 2, 1926, the Pool acquired the grain elevators of the Saskatchewan Co-operative Elevator Company. ...
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  • Estevan Coal Strike 81% Estevan Coal Strike - In the summer of 1931, 600 men and boys worked in the almost two dozen underground mines of the Souris Coal Fields of southeastern Saskatchewan. The mine owners still refused to bargain, and instead brought in scabs (replacement workers) to reopen three of the biggest mines on September 16. Mass picketing by hundreds of striking miners sent the scabs away, and the mines once again closed. Because of the employers' stiff opposition towards the Mine Workers Union of ...
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  • 734 (Regina) and 737 (Saskatoon) Communication 81% 734 (Regina) and 737 (Saskatoon) Communication - The Communication Reserve is part of the Information Management Group of National Defence Headquarters of the Canadian Forces. Communication Reservists are trained as ground soldiers and wear the army uniform; however, they are often called upon to work and train with other elements (Army, Navy or Air Force) of the reserve and regular forces. 734 (Regina) Communication Squadron specializes in tactical and strategic communication, employing ...
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  • Religion 81% The formation of the United Church of Canada in 1925, through the union of Congregationalist, Methodist and the majority of Presbyterian churches, changed the religious statistics reported in subsequent censuses; “unionist” congregations account for the United Church numbers before 1925. In addition to religious traditions that reflect the belief systems of the majority of residents (Christianity and Aboriginal traditions), Saskatchewan is home to many smaller communities holding ...
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  • Big Bear First Nation 79% According to official reports, Big Bear and his band arrived at Fort Pitt in August 1883 and promised to take a reserve; but they failed to do so, traveling instead to the Battleford district. In June 1884 Big Bear hosted a Thirst Dance ( Sun Dance ) on the Poundmaker Reserve; when the North-West Mounted Police arrived to disperse them, Big Bear and Poundmaker were barely able to avert violence. Reports from 1886 reveal that Big Bear’s band had scattered following the Resistance, ...
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  • Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation 79% The Dene-speaking Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation signed an adhesion to Treaty 8 in July 1899 as part of Maurice Piche’s band. The Chipewyan word “Denesuline” translates as “people of the barrens”; they are also referred to as “ Ethen-eldeli ” or “caribou-eaters. The infrastructure comprises an airstrip, band office complex, school and teacherage, fisherman’s cold storage plant, fire hall, senior citizen centre, arena, nursing station ...
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  • BENSON, JACOB (“JAKE”) (1892– 1987) 79% Benson became active in various farm organizations, such as the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association (SGGA), and canvassed his township convincing farmers to sign contracts in order to establish the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool. Through his involvement in the farmers’ movement, Benson became involved in the Progressive Party. Benson was re-elected in 1944 and 1948, but the relationship between Benson and senior members of the CCF government continued to deteriorate. ...
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  • Lancaster, Ron (1938–2008) 79% Recognized as the Saskatchewan Roughriders’ most outstanding quarterback, Ron Lancaster continued to make important contributions to the Canadian Football League long after his paying career. Born in Fairchance, Pennsylvania on October 14, 1938, Lancaster played college football at Wittenburg University in Ohio and was signed by the Ottawa Rough Riders in 1960. Lancaster is honuoured as a member of the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame (1981), the Canadian Football Hall of Fame (1982), ...
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  • Media: Newspapers, Television and Radio 79% However, the CBC-TV signal was available in Saskatchewan through privately owned TV stations like CKCK (Regina), CFQC (Saskatoon), CKBI (Prince Albert), CJFB (Swift Current) and CKOS (Yorkton). Notable commercial media groups in Saskatchewan have been the Sifton family (which by the 1970s owned the Leader-Post and StarPhoenix , CKCK-Radio and TV, and several media properties outside of the province) and the Rawlinson radio group (which started in Prince Albert, and acquired stations in North ...
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  • White Bear First Nation 79% Chief Wahpemakwa (White Bear) signed Treaty 4 in 1875 and accepted a reserve on the east side of Moose Mountain in 1877. This claim enabled the White Bear Band to invest funds received as part of the settlement for their own economic development. In recent years the band has assumed control of the White Bear Lake resort (1978–79), and built the White Bear Golf Course (1987, 1992), White Bear Oil and Gas, Ltd. (1993), and the Bear Claw Casino and Lodge (1996). ...
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  • Young Chipeewayan First Nation (Stony Knoll) 79% Young Chipeewayan First Nation (Stony Knoll) - On August 23, 1876, Chief Chipeewayan and four headmen (Naa-poo-chee-chees, Wah-wis, Kah-pah-pah-mah-chatik-way, and Kee-yeu-ah-tiah-pim-waht) signed Treaty 6 at Fort Carlton, and in 1879 a reserve was surveyed for them. When Chief Chipeewayan passed away in 1877, his son, Young Chipeewayan, became the hereditary chief and the Department of Indian Affairs adopted his name as the proper name for the band. By 1888 the Young Chipeewayan Band was ...
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  • Wood Mountain Dakota First Nation 79% Wood Mountain Dakota First Nation - The Wood Mountain Reserve consists of 2,376.2 ha of rolling prairie near the village of Wood Mountain. The nomadic Dakota camped in the borderland between the United Stated and Canada in the mid-1800s, establishing a degree of permanency in the territory between Jean-Louis Légaré 's Wood Mountain trading post and Moose Jaw Creek by 1876. On October 29, 1910, a temporary reserve was created for them near Wood Mountain, and although the Lakota ...
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  • Woman Suffrage 79% The Alberta-Saskatchewan division of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) had endorsed the idea since 1904, and the wife of Premier Walter Scott signed a WCTU suffrage petition in 1909. In February 1913, a women’s meeting held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Saskatchewan Grain Growers’ Association (SGGA) circulated a petition for woman suffrage. McNaughton recognized that an effective suffrage campaign would need to unite the farm women’s ...
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  • Witchekan Lake First Nation 79% Witchekan Lake First Nation - Witchekan Lake Cree First Nation signed Treaty 6 on November 21, 1950. Economic endeavours include agriculture, forestry, trapping, and fishing; with its successful acquisition of the Bapaume Community Pasture in 1997, this band was the first in Saskatchewan to acquire a Crown community pasture through a Treaty Land Entitlement Agreement. The community infrastructure includes a band office, school, fire hall, band hall, community health clinic, and assorted ...
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  • Whitecap Dakota First Nation 79% Whitecap Dakota First Nation - Historically referred to as the Moose Woods Sioux Reserve, the 1,677.4-ha Whitecap Dakota Reserve is located 26 km south of Saskatoon. Chief Wapahaska (White Cap) and his band settled along the South Saskatchewan River, and though not having signed treaty they received a reserve in June 1881. Band members trickled back to the reserve to begin rebuilding, and in the process switched to raising cattle. ...
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  • Waterhen Lake First Nation 79% Waterhen Lake First Nation - According to Department of Indian Affairs reports, the Waterhen Lake First Nation signed an adhesion to Treaty 6 in January 1913 under Chief Running Around, and in 1916 a reserve was surveyed for them. The Waterhen Lake First Nation hunted and trapped in the area around Lost Lake, and would go as far as Primrose Lake. The Waterhen Lake (S�k�p Sâkahikan) Cree Nation is the largest band in the Meadow Lake Tribal Council; 729 of its 1,631 registered members ...
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  • Treaty 5 79% Treaty 5 - Treaty 5, signed in 1875, included three Saskatchewan First Nations: Cumberland House, Shoal River, and Red Earth. Treaty 5 dealt mainly with the Manitoba area, and was unique in the fact that the Treaty Commissioner dealt individually with regional bands rather than with a large treaty area. During the negotiations of Treaty 5, Treaty Commissioner Morris used the strategy of separating the general idea of treaty from the issues of establishing specific reserves. ...
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  • Treaty 4 79% Treaty 4 - While negotiators for the British Crown struggled to contain First Nations' demands, the strategy of the Cree and Saulteaux was to gain full compensation for their lands. In 1874, when Treaty 4 was negotiated, the First Nations had insisted on having a Treaty Ground set aside to conduct treaty business. The outbreak of the North-West Resistance in 1885 brought about the imposition of the pass system that forbade First Nations to leave their reserves without permission; treaty ...
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  • Treaty 10 79% Treaty 10 - Treaty 10, signed in 1906-07, covered the northern portions of the province which were not included by Treaties 6 or 8. The area of Treaty 10 also encompassed regions that were not surrendered by those groups who adhered to Treaty 6 but had traditionally occupied lands within the Treaty 10 region. This Treaty was largely modeled on Treaty 8 . In exchange for access to the surrendered territory and similarly to the promises made under Treaty 8, it was agreed that Canada would ...
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  • Thompson Committee (1960–62) 79% J.F.C. Anderson, E.W. Barootes , and C.J. Houston ( College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan ); Dr. I.M. Hilliard (College of Medicine); Donald McPherson (Saskatchewan Chamber of Commerce); W.E. Smishek ( Saskatchewan Federation of Labour ); and Dr. V.L. Matthews , former Health Minister T.J. Bentley, and Deputy Minister of Public Health Dr. F.B. Roth (the last three representing the government of Saskatchewan). The committee was instructed to report to Walter Erb, Minister of ...
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  • The Key First Nation 79% The Key First Nation - Followers of Chief Ow-tah-pee-ka-kaw ("He Who Unlocks" or "The Key") were residing along the Shoal River in southwestern Manitoba in the mid-1800s. The band included Saulteaux, Saulteaux-Cree, and Saulteaux-Orkney individuals when The Key signed adhesion to Treaty 4 September 24, 1875, and was told his people would be relocated further west. A reserve was surveyed 145 km northeast of Fort Pelly in 1878; but when the agent visited it in 1880 the land was badly flooded, ...
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  • Sturgeon Lake First Nation 79% Sturgeon Lake First Nation - Cree Chief Ah-yah-tus-kum-ik-im-am (William Twatt) and four headmen signed Treaty 6 near Fort Carlton on August 23, 1876, and received a reserve at Sturgeon Lake in 1878, about 29 km northwest of Prince Albert. The band was commonly known as the William Twatt Band, but it changed its name in 1963 to the Sturgeon Lake Band, and later to the Sturgeon Lake First Nation. In the 1970s, most cultivated land on the reserve was utilized as a band-operated farm; when the ...
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  • Sharma, Rajendra Kumar (1942–) 79% Sharma, Rajendra Kumar (1942-) - Rajendra (Raj) K. Sharma was born on January 2, 1942, in Hathras, India, and came to Canada in 1976. In 1991, he joined the Department of Pathology in the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan , and the Cancer Research Unit of the S askatchewan Cancer Agency . Dr. Sharma is a dedicated scientist with an international reputation for conducting innovative research. ...
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  • Schmeiser, Percy (1931–) 79% Schmeiser was sued and eventually convicted of violating the patent on a genetic sequence contained in canola plants developed and owned by Monsanto; he was charged with obtaining and using the seed without signing a contract and paying the required fees to Monsanto. While Schmeiser was not the only farmer in Canada sued by Monsanto for this patent infraction, his case was the most public, as he chose not to pay the fine and became the first farmer to challenge the charge through the ...
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  • Saskatchewan Provincial Police 79% Saskatchewan Provincial Police - On January 1, 1917 a new era of law enforcement began in Saskatchewan, when the Saskatchewan Provincial Police (SPP) took over day-to-day policing duties from the Royal North-West Mounted Police (RNWMP). Since the province's creation the Mounted Police had been the province's police force-except in the major urban centres, where municipal police services had been introduced. Under the leadership of Commissioner Charles Mahoney, who would serve in the ...
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  • Saskatchewan Arts Board 79% Saskatchewan Arts Board - The establishment of the Saskatchewan Arts Board by Order-in-Council in 1948 and the Arts Board Act in 1949 signified a major development for the arts in Saskatchewan and North America. Outside the United Kingdom, where the British Arts Council had just been established, the Arts Board was the first of many: a public arts agency operating and granting funds "at arm's length" from government. The Arts Board rapidly launched a number of programs to make the arts ...
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  • Sakimay First Nation 79% Sakimay First Nation - Chief Sakimay (Sah-ka-ma, Sah-kee-may) and his Cree followers signed Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874. The Sakimay Reserve is located 16 km northeast of Grenfell, and is the most populated portion of the land belonging to this band. Band infrastructure includes a band office, band hall, clinic, machine shop, trade shop, training centre, and maintenance buildings. ...
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  • Red Earth First Nation 79% Red Earth First Nation - The area of the Red Earth and Carrot River Reserves once included a trail that led from the parklands to the Saskatchewan River delta, and which was used until the 1930s. The region marked the territorial boundary between the Plains and Swampy Cree , and Red Earth was the most northern Plains Cree community. Kiseyinis and Cecim signed an adhesion to Treaty 5 on September 7, 1876, and reserves were surveyed for them in 1884 (Red Earth) and 1894 (Carrot River). ...
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  • Puhl, Terry (1956–) 79% Puhl, Terry (1956-) - Born in Melville on July 8, 1956, Terry Puhl was a dependable outfielder for fourteen seasons with the Houston Astros. A 1978 National League All-Star, Puhl and the Astros won the NL West Division pennant in 1980. Terry Puhl was inducted into the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame in 1994, and in the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame in 1995. ...
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  • Price, George Lawrence (1892–1918) 79% Price, George Lawrence (1892-1918) - Private George Lawrence Price was the last soldier killed in battle during World War I . Born on December 15, 1892, in Kings County, Nova Scotia, Price moved to Moose Jaw as a young man. In October 1917, he enlisted in the 210th Infantry Battalion (Frontiersmen), Canadian Expeditionary Force, and completed his basic training with the 1st Saskatchewan Depot battalion in December. He joined the 28th Canadian Infantry Battalion , a Saskatchewan-based unit, ...
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  • Poundmaker Cree First Nation 79% Poundmaker Cree First Nation - Chief Poundmaker (Pitikwahanapiwiyin) signed an adhesion to Treaty 6 on February 22, 1876, at Fort Carlton, and chose a reserve 40 km northwest of North Battleford in 1881. Once a member of Red Pheasant's band, Poundmaker broke away to create a band of his own. It was announced in 1998 that 904.4 ha were being purchased and set apart as reserve land for the band under the Saskatchewan Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement, increasing the reserve's size ...
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  • Piapot Cree First Nation 79% Piapot Cree First Nation - Chief Piapot (Payepot) signed an adhesion to Treaty 4 on September 9, 1875, originally seeking a reserve in the Cypress Hills region. After much persuasion he settled on a reserve bordering the Carry the Kettle Reserve in August 1883. The band's main economic base is agriculture, and the community's infrastructure includes a band office, recreation centre, fire hall, arena, elementary and high schools, day care, medical clinic, outdoor rink, and a gas bar that ...
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  • Pheasant’s Rump Nakota First Nation 79% Pheasant's Rump Nakota First Nation - The Pheasant's Rump Nakota Reserve is located 10 km northwest of Kisbey and incorporates 7,966.5 ha of farmland, rolling hills, ravines, bush, and ponds. The Pheasant's Rump people entered the 1890s supplementing their income by freighting for settlers, cutting and selling cordwood, hauling timber, selling lime from their kiln, and making plough beams, sleds and collars. In 1898 Inspector Alex McGibbon was authorized to obtain a surrender of the ...
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  • Peter Ballantyne Cree First Nation 79% Peter Ballantyne Cree First Nation - This band signed Treaty 6 on February 11, 1889, under the Lac La Ronge Indian Band. The total land base consists of 27,920.4 ha, all of which is located within 100 km of Flin Flon, Manitoba-except for Southend/ Reindeer Lake, 200 km northwest of Flin Flon, and property in the city of Prince Albert. The economic base consists of fishing, forestry, trapping, and commercial developments, and the infrastructure includes a band office, warehouse, schools, ...
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  • Pelican Lake First Nation 79% Pelican Lake First Nation - This Cree band signed Treaty 6 in 1889 and continued to hunt and fish. In 1901 they were considered part of Kenemotayoo's band, but lived separately on the shores of Pelican Lake for many years before choosing a reserve on Chitek Lake. Businesses include the Chitek Lake Indian Development Company Ltd., Chamakese Summer Resort, Chitek Lake Houseboats Ltd., Pelican Lake Trucking Ltd., Junior Farms Ltd., Penn General Store Ltd., and Pelican Lake Mini-mall. ...
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  • Patterson, William John (1886–1976) 79% Patterson, William John (1886-1976) - The response to two signal events in the history of Saskatchewan-the Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II -fell largely to the Liberal government of Premier William Patterson, which was in power from 1935, when James Gardiner departed to serve in the federal Cabinet, until the landslide victory of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in the provincial election of 1944. Though the Patterson government, and Patterson himself, were respected ...
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  • Pasqua First Nation 79% Pasqua First Nation - Chief Joseph Pasqua signed Treaty 4 in September 1874, and selected a reserve bordering Pasqua Lake for his Cree , Saulteaux , Assiniboine and Sioux people. He died in 1889, and the band remained without a chief until the 1911 election of Ben Pasqua, Joseph's son. This election followed years of petitioning by the Pasqua band members, and once in office Ben pressed the department for an explanation as to why the band was kept without a chief for twenty-two years. ...
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  • One Arrow First Nation 79% One Arrow First Nation - One Arrow Cree First Nation signed Treaty 6 on September 6, 1878; while the One Arrow Reserve is located 53 km southwest of Prince Albert, the band has a total of 9,331.4 ha surrounding the South Saskatchewan River . This band settled on its reserve late in the autumn of 1880, in what was considered a fine location to begin agricultural development. Their infrastructure includes a general store, rodeo grounds, sports grounds, school, health clinic, band office, ...
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  • Okanese Reserve 79% Okanese Reserve - Chief Okanis (Okanese) signed an adhesion to Treaty 4 on September 9, 1875, and settled in the File Hills, 16 km northeast of Fort Qu'Appelle. In 1879 a residential school was built on the reserve by the Presbyterian Church (File Hills Residential School); it closed in 1950, and a day school (File Hills Day School) was built under the auspices of the United Church. A Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement was reached in December 1999, enabling Okanese to increase its ...
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  • Ocean Man First Nation 79% Ocean Man First Nation - Chief Kitchi-Kah-Me-Win (Great Seaman or Ocean Man, Kicheekahmenin, Kickekamewin) signed an adhesion to Treaty 4 on September 9, 1875. In 1882 a 23,680-acre reserve was surveyed for this Assiniboine , Cree , and Saulteaux band, adjacent to Chief Pheasant Rump's reserve in the Moose Mountains north of Kisbey. The band's agricultural development was noted in many reports over the years; but in 1901, following several years of persuasion, the band surrendered its ...
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  • Nekaneet Cree First Nation 79% Nekaneet Cree First Nation - The Nekaneet First Nation signed Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874, under the leadership of Foremost Man (Front Man), who refused to relocate when other bands were forced out of the Cypress Hills in 1882. In 1987, Nekaneet band members sought compensation for outstanding lawful obligations, but it was not until 1998 that Canada accepted the band's claim for benefits. To this day, the band faces enormous economic problems, and band members are forced to seek ...
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  • Muskowekwan First Nation 79% Muskowekwan First Nation - Chief Ka-nee-na-wup (One Who Sits Like an Eagle) and his Ojibway people lived along the Upper Qu'Appelle Lakes prior to signing Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874. When Ka-nee-na-wup died, his son Muscowequan (Hard Quill, Muskowekwan) became chief. The Muskowekwan Reserve is located 64 km northwest of Fort Qu'Appelle; its infrastructure includes a band office and medical clinic, band hall, workshop, maintenance office, water treatment plant and pump house, school and ...
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  • Muskeg Lake Cree Nation 79% Muskeg Lake Cree Nation - Muskeg Lake Cree Nation signed Treaty 6 on August 23, 1876, under Chief Peteynakey (Petequakay, Petequacay). Currently, their economic base includes agriculture, gaming, and many commercial developments (e.g., on urban reserve land in Saskatoon) under Creek Investments Limited (1993) and Aspen Development Incorporated. Community infrastructure includes a school, band office, fire hall, church, sports grounds, mechanic shop, resource centre, recreation centre, ...
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  • Muscowpetung First Nation 79% Muscowpetung First Nation - This Ojibway and Cree band signed an adhesion to Treaty 4 on September 8, 1875, under Chief Muscowpetung, but continued to live a nomadic life, residing in the borderland Cypress Hills in hopes that the buffalo would return. The main economic base has remained agricultural, and the community infrastructure includes a school, band hall, band office, machine shop, gymnasium, medical clinic, and maintenance buildings. In addition to the band's 9,357.2 ha of land, ...
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  • Moosomin First Nation 79% Moosomin First Nation - In 1876, representatives of the federal government and the Cree of central Saskatchewan entered into Treaty 6 . Yellow Sky and his band were not present for the negotiations, but in the spring of 1881 Yellow Sky's headman, Moosomin, signed an adhesion to the treaty. Yellow Sky was recognized as chief of Moosomin's band until 1884, when Indian Commissioner Dewdney appointed the latter as chief. Unfortunately it also attracted the interest of local settlers and ...
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  • Montreal Lake Cree Nation 79% Montreal Lake Cree Nation - Following their move from Grand Rapids at the northwestern end of Lake Winnipeg to the Montreal Lake region in the mid-1800s, the band signed an adhesion to Treaty 6 on February 11, 1889, under Chief William Charles, and its reserve was surveyed at the southern end of Montreal Lake in 1890. The Little Red River Reserve, surveyed in 1897 for the joint agricultural use of the Montreal Lake and Lac La Ronge Bands, was divided between the two in 1948. The Montreal ...
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  • Mistawasis First Nation 79% Mistawasis First Nation - The Cree ancestors of the Mistawasis Band migrated from the woodlands of eastern Manitoba and the Great Lakes of Ontario. Chief Mistawasis, leader of a group of Cree known as the "House People," spoke strongly in favour of Treaty 6 , signing it on August 23, 1876. The Green Lake Trail (used for freighting from Fort Carlton to Green Lake) ran through the middle of the reserve, providing easy access to outside markets. ...
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  • Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 79% Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation - From the time the members of the Makwa Lake Cree Band (Loon Lake) signed Treaty 6 on September 9, 1876, until they were successful in receiving the Makwa Lake Reserve (Numbers 129 and 129A) in 1916, they continued to live much as they had prior to treaty. The band's infrastructure consists of a band office, warehouse, kindergarten, school, fire hall, band hall, and arena. The band controls a total of 5,881.7 ha of reserve land, the largest parcel of which is ...
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  • Little Black Bear First Nation 79% Little Black Bear First Nation - Cree Chief Kees kee hew mus-coo muskwa (Little Black Bear) signed Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874, and settled on the reserve surveyed for his band in the File Hills (4 km south and 4 km west of Goodeve) in 1880. This band has its own Band Membership Code, and band by-laws that govern all areas of its administration. Band-owned land in Balcarres holds their Lands Holding Company and Trust Office, while land in Ft. Qu'Appelle remains open for future ...
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  • Kinistino First Nation 79% Kinistino First Nation - The Kinistin and Yellow Quill Saulteaux people moved to the Qu'Appelle Valley from their ancestral territory north of the Great Lakes, signing an adhesion to Treaty 4 on August 24, 1876, at Fort Pelly. Attempting to maintain his traditional way of life, Kinistin broke from Yellow Quill and camped in the parkland of the Barrier River district. Following Riel 's defeat, Kinistin returned to Barrier River to choose a reserve. ...
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  • Keeseekoose First Nation 79% Keeseekoose First Nation - Chief Keeseekoose signed Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874, and settled on the Swan River Reserve, Manitoba. Because of flooding, the band was relocated to their present reserve near the towns of Pelly and Kamsack, between the Cote and Key Reserves. The band-controlled St. Phillip's School sits on the same grounds as the old residential school, while their strip mall houses a gas station and convenience store, as well as the Yorkton Tribal Council Child and Family ...
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  • Kawacatoose First Nation 79% Kawacatoose First Nation - Chief Kawacatoose signed Treaty 4 September 15, 1874, and two years later received a reserve in the Big Touchwood Hills. The reserve was originally named the Poor Man Reserve, as Kawacatoose is also referred to as Poor Man, although the correct translation is Lean Man or Skinny Man. The Kawacatoose First Nation is located 10 km north of Quinton, with facilities that include a band office, the Education Complex, a health clinic, water treatment plant, and private ...
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  • James Smith Cree Nation 79% James Smith Cree Nation - James Smith arrived in 1875 from the St. Peter's Reserve in Manitoba and signed Treaty 6 on August 23, 1876. The first claim concerns the surrender of the Chakastaypasin Reserve (IR 98): in 1898, members of the Chakastaypasin Band were added to other bands (including James Smith) when the federal government removed their reserve from reserve status; Chakastaypasin descendants want the re-establishment of their band and reserve, claiming it was never formally ...
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  • Indian Policy and the Early Reserve Period 79% Indian Policy and the Early Reserve Period - Early government policy for First Nations in Saskatchewan was administered under the Indian Act, with the goal of training First Nations people to become farmers and assimilating them into the greater Canadian society. After the events of 1885 Hayter Reed, then Assistant Indian Commissioner of Indian Affairs, drafted a lengthy “Memorandum on the Future Management of Indians,” which would become a template for Indian policy in ...
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  • Hatchet Lake Denesuline Nation (Lac la Hache) 79% Hatchet Lake Denesuline Nation (Lac la Hache) - On August 19, 1907, Commissioner Borthwick met with the Denesuline of the Lac la Hache at Lac du Brochet on the north end of Reindeer Lake to negotiate an adhesion to Treaty 10 . Three days later, after selecting their chief and headmen, they reassembled with the Treaty Commissioner and signed. The reserve was surveyed on the east side of Wollaston Lake, 354 km north of Flin Flon in the fall of 1965, and set apart as the Lac La Hache Indian ...
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  • Hall, Glenn (1931–) 79% Hall, Glenn (1931-) - A model of consistency as a professional goaltender, Glenn Hall played eighteen NHL seasons and rarely missed a game. Born on October 3, 1931, in Humboldt, Hall spent his junior career with the Humboldt Indians and the Windsor Spitfires before signing with the Detroit Red Wings in 1951. Hall was elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1975 and the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame in 1991. ...
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  • Hafford 79% The town, situated in beautiful rolling countryside on the southern edge of the Aspen parklands, is a service centre for a predominantly agricultural district. In the early 1900s, the region was populated by one of the largest block settlements of Ukrainians in Saskatchewan ( see UKRAINIAN SETTLEMENTS ). Hafford’s rich Ukrainian heritage is still very much in evidence: the town’s street signs are in both Ukrainian and English, and a number of the community’s annual events ...
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  • George Gordon First Nation 79% George Gordon First Nation - The Cree and Ojibway band under George Gordon signed Treaty 4 in 1874, and in 1876 their reserve was surveyed on the western edge of the Little Touchwood Hills, 61 km northwest of Fort Qu'Appelle, where they had already commenced farming. The George Gordon Reserve boasts a modern medical clinic, an education centre, a computer centre, an arena and a day care, as well as the Gordon Retail Centre and the Buffalo Ranch Project. Programs that are offered to band ...
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  • Fort Pitt 79% Fort Pitt - Founded in 1829 and located at a large bend in the North Saskatchewan River , Fort Pitt was the Hudson's Bay Company's major trading post between Fort Carlton and Fort Edmonton. In 1876, Fort Pitt and Fort Carlton were chosen to co-host the signing of Treaty 6 . Fort Pitt was also to play an important part in the North-West Resistance of 1885. After the massacre, 250 Cree warriors moved from Frog Lake to camp on a hill overlooking Fort Pitt, the closest fort to Frog Lake. ...
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  • Flying Dust First Nation 79% Flying Dust First Nation - Chief Kopahawakemum, as leader of the Meadow Lake First Nation, signed Treaty 6 on September 3, 1878, at Fort Carlton. A reserve immediately north of Meadow Lake was settled in 1889 by this Cree nation. It is unknown when Chief Kopahawakemum passed away, but Aypaspik was noted as chief in 1899. ...
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  • Fishing Lake First Nation 79% Fishing Lake First Nation - Chief Yellow Quill and two headmen, Kenistin and Ne-Pin-awa, signed an adhesion to Treaty 4 on August 24, 1876, at Fort Pelly. In September 1881 reserves for the Yellow Quill Saulteaux Band were surveyed at Fishing and Nut Lakes, and in 1900 a reserve was surveyed for Kenistin. As the claim progressed, discussion evolved around whether the people living on the Fishing Lake, Nut Lake, and Kinistin reserves were distinct bands (as they considered themselves to be) ...
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  • First Nations Land Claims 79% First Nations Land Claims - There are three major types of claims in Saskatchewan: specific, surrender, and land entitlement. A Treaty Land Entitlement claim occurs when a First Nation alleges that the Canadian government did not provide the reserve land promised under treaty. Under paragraph 10 of the Agreement, the province agreed to provide unoccupied Crown lands, or to share in the cost of providing money for bands to purchase land if no suitable Crown lands were available. ...
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  • Education 79% Education - Education in Saskatchewan Before Confederation Prior to the missionary schools, First Nations followed traditional customs: there were no special educative institutions; the social group as a whole was the school; and the tribal education system involved imitating the adults. School District Consolidation When schools offered only elementary education, the challenges were manageable and thousands of school districts and thousands of schools sprang up across the province. The ...
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  • Dumont Technical Institute 79% Dumont Technical Institute - The Dumont Technical Institute (DTI), the Gabriel Dumont Institute (GDI)'s largest program, began operations in 1992 in order to serve the basic education, upgrading, technical, and vocational training needs of Saskatchewan's Métis . DTI is affiliated with the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST), and delivers programs in partnership with the Métis Employment and Training of Saskatchewan Inc., Human Resources Development ...
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  • Diamonds 79% Diamonds - Diamonds are a crystalline form of carbon. Areas of interest for exploration in the province include the Choiceland, Fort à la Corne, Pasquia Hills, Molanosa Arch, Candle Lake, Sturgeon Lake, Smoothstone Lake and Wapawekka Lake areas. Several micro-diamonds (less than 0.5 mm) have been found in the province since then; larger diamonds (macro-diamonds) have also been found during some exploratory drilling, but there have been no signs of large stones or sites. ...
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  • Day Star First Nation 79% Day Star First Nation - Prior to signing Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874, Chief Day Star (Kii-si-caw-ah-chuck) and his people hunted near the south branch of the Saskatchewan River . Day Star remained chief until his death in 1892. In 1946 Chief Kinequon and Willie Buffalo purchased the first tractor, and as more modern equipment appeared, people began to farm as individuals. ...
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  • Cumberland House First Nation 79% Cumberland House First Nation - The Cumberland House Cree signed an adhesion to Treaty 5 in September 1876, and a reserve was surveyed for them in 1883. This initial survey included an island (named Chief's Island) on which the chief, a councilor, and a number of the band's members resided. The Cumberland House Reserve totals 2,145.8 ha; while their total band membership sits at 957 people, only 535 members live on the reserve, 160 km northeast of Nipawin. ...
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  • Cumberland House 79% Situated on an island which separates Cumberland Lake from the Saskatchewan River , Cumberland House was established in 1774 by Samuel Hearne for the Hudson’s Bay Company. In 1876, the Cumberland House First Nation, whose reserve lands are located southeast of the village, signed an adhesion to  Treaty 5 . Between 1874 and 1925, Cumberland House was an important centre for the steamboat traffic on the Saskatchewan River systems. Notable people from Cumberland House include Keith ...
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  • Cote First Nation 79% Cote First Nation - Gabriel Cote's Cree-Saulteaux band signed Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874, and a reserve was surveyed in 1877. In 1904, land was surrendered for the Canadian Northern Railway station and the town site of Kamsack. The band has a day care centre, band office, community hall, health station, and arena, as well as the Saulteaux Healing and Wellness Centre, Cote United Church, and Chief Gabriel Cote Education Complex. ...
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  • Corrections 79% In addition, there are two community correctional centres, the Battlefords Community Correctional Centre and the Buffalo Narrows Centre, and two correctional camps, at Besnard Lake and Saskatoon. Other community-based sentences such as electronic monitoring and community service have also been developed Parole services are provided by the federal government through the Correctional Service of Canada. Such services include personal visitation of long-term offenders who have no personal ...
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  • Clearwater River Dene Band 79% Clearwater River Dene Band - The Clearwater River Dene (Big "C," La Loche) First Nation occupies three La Loche Reserves located 11 km southwest and 24 km east of La Loche, and 24 km northwest of Buffalo Narrows. Ancestors of this band signed Treaty 8 in 1899, and chose the La Loche area for their reserve as it was thick with vegetation and wildlife. La Loche Landing (located between La Loche and Buffalo Narrows) is the most populated reserve area, but most of the Band's members live in the ...
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  • Chakastapaysin First Nation 79% Chakastapaysin First Nation - Chakastapaysin and four headmen signed Treaty 6 in August 1876 at Fort Carlton. Their band resided in an area around Fort à la Corne in the late 1880s, but the Department of Indian Affairs alleged that all of the Chakastapaysin Band members had moved off their reserve by 1898 and that their names had been added to the pay lists of other bands. In December 1998, members of the James Smith Cree Nation, descended from Chakastapaysin Band members, launched a ...
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  • Chacachas First Nation 79% Chacachas First Nation - Chief Chacachas signed Treaty 4 on September 15, 1874, at Qu'Appelle, as did Chief Kakisheway. Adjacent reserves were surveyed on the south side of Round Lake and the Qu'Appelle River in 1876, and when Kakisheway requested to be relocated in 1881 surveyor John Nelson placed both Calling River bands (Kakisheway and Chacachas) on one reserve. About forty-five Chacachas band members joined Kakisheway's band; others, including Chacachas, remained stragglers. ...
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  • Cennon, J.J. (1922–) 79% Cennon, J.J. (1922-) - A well-known broadcaster and community member, J.J. (Jack) Cennon was born in Saskatoon on October 13, 1922. From 1936 to 1941, he worked as a radio announcer with CFQC Saskatoon before serving with the Royal Canadian Signal Corps during World War II . Later, Cennon moved to Prince Albert and was production manager of CKBI. ...
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  • Carry the Kettle First Nation 79% Carry the Kettle First Nation - Upon signing an adhesion to Treaty 4 on September 25, 1877, the Assiniboine wanted a reserve west of the Cypress Mountain. The band's farmers took many prizes at exhibitions in Regina and Indian Head; they developed a fine herd of cattle and kept sheep for wool. Current band enterprises involve school, health centre, healing lodge, store-gas station, and an eco-tourism business. ...
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  • Canoe Lake First Nation 79% Canoe Lake First Nation - The Canoe Lake First Nation came into existence when Chief John Iron, Headmen Baptiste Iron, and Jerome Couilloneur signed Treaty 10 on September 19, 1906. The band's economic development includes hunting, fishing, trapping, lumber, a sawmill, and handicraft business. The infrastructure includes an arena, school, handicraft building, sawmill, band office, teacherages, band hall, café, service station, laundromat, and recreation building/pool hall. ...
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  • Buffalo River Dene First Nation 79% Buffalo River Dene First Nation - The Buffalo River Dene Nation (Peter Pond Lake) signed Treaty 10 on August 28, 1906. Before settling at Buffalo River, the Band is thought to have lived at Buffalo Narrows for a period of time in the 1890s. In 1972, the Peter Pond Band was divided into the Turnor Lake (Birch Narrows First Nation) and Buffalo River First Nations. ...
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  • British Commonwealth Air Training Plan 79% British Commonwealth Air Training Plan - Representatives from Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand signed the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) on December 17, 1939. From 1940 to 1945, 120 training schools were constructed across Canada, twenty of which were located in Saskatchewan ( see Table BCATP-1). These schools trained aircrew for the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, and the Royal New Zealand Air Force ( see Table ...
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  • Black Lake Denesuline First Nation 79% Black Lake Denesuline First Nation - The ancestors of the Black Lake Denesuline Nation (Stony Rapids Band) signed an adhesion to Treaty 8 in July 1899 under Chief Maurice Piche (also known as Moberley) at Fond du Lac. In 1949 Maurice's band split (officially) into the Fond du Lac and Black Lake Bands. The Black Lake Denesuline Nation has three reserves on the east and west sides of Black Lake about 170 km southeast of Uranium City, the most populated being Chicken 224. ...
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  • Birch Narrows Dene First Nation 79% Birch Narrows Dene First Nation - The Birch Narrows Dene Band signed Treaty 10 on August 28, 1906. They were originally part of the Peter Pond Band, but separated in 1972 into the Birch Narrows and Buffalo River Dene Nations; most of the Birch Narrows Dene Nation Reserve adjoins that of the Buffalo River Dene Nation. Community infrastructure includes a taxi service, candy store, band store, a health clinic, youth centre, learning centre, justice program, educational complex, day care, post ...
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  • Biggar 79% Biggar - Town, pop 2,243, located 93 km W of Saskatoon at the junction of Hwys 4, 14, and 51. The town is famous for its slogan “New York is Big, But This is Biggar”; local legend has it that an early survey crew had too much to drink one night and wrote the famous phrase on the town’s sign as a prank. Community attractions include the Biggar Museum and Gallery, Roger Martin’s Homestead Museum, and Sandra SCHMIRLER Olympic Gold Park, established in honour of the ...
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  • Big River Cree First Nation 79% Big River Cree First Nation - Big River First Nation is located 98 km northwest of Prince Albert and 19 km southwest of the village of Debden. It is uncertain when the original Indigenous populations began to settle on the banks of the long, narrow Oklemow-Cee-Pee River (Big River), but the Cree Chief See-See-Way-um signed Treaty 6 on September 3, 1878, and for the next twenty years his band remained self-sufficient as they continued to hunt, trap, and fish the bountiful resources of the ...
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  • Big Island Lake First Nation (Joseph Big Head) 79% Big Island Lake First Nation (Joseph Big Head) - Cree Chief Joseph Bighead signed an adhesion to Treaty 6 on June 25, 1913, and requested that his band be allowed to continue to hunt and fish in the region of Lac des Iles. The community's infrastructure includes a band office, warehouse, school, band hall, and community maintenance facility buildings. The 851-member band controls 4,700 hectares; 559 people live on their reserve, located 35 km east of Cold Lake, Alberta. ...
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  • Beardy’s and Okemasis First Nation 79% Beardy's and Okemasis First Nation - Chief Beardy's Willow Plains Cree hunted and trapped throughout the Duck Lake area prior to signing Treaty 6 on August 28, 1876, at Fort Carlton. In 1991, Beardy's and Okemasis First Nation and Saskatchewan Provincial Parks entered into a joint agreement creating the Tipi Encampment at Fort Carlton, a Hudson's Bay Company post, 30 km west of the reserve. More recently, the Beardy's and Okemasis First Nation developed a justice program that provides ...
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  • Ahtahkakoop First Nation 79% Ahtahkakoop First Nation - Chief Ahtahkakoop signed Treaty 6 at Fort Carlton on August 23, 1876. The band’s infrastructure includes a school, workshop, warehouse, police station, RCMP residences, fire hall, health clinic, band hall, arena, gymnasium, daycare, the Lonesome Pine Convenience Store, the Indian Child and Family Services Agency, and the Cree Nations Treatment Centre. In 2000 the band-owned Ahtahkakoop Publishing Company published its first book, Atahkakoop: The Epic Account ...
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This web site was produced with financial assistance
provided by Western Economic Diversification Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan.
University of Regina Government of Canada Government of Saskatchewan Canadian Plains Research Center
Ce site Web a été conçu grâce à l'aide financière de
Diversification de l'économie de l'Ouest Canada et le gouvernement de la Saskatchewan.